Solomon son of Abdul-Malik' entrusted his cousin to the succession's charge of Muslims
He was 'Omar son of Abdul-Aziz' the fifth noble successor
'Omar' decided penance for all the decay which the monarchy commited
He himself was living in observance, and modesty with his family
He didnot wheel around for the poets and the elocutionists but was near to religious scholars
He took possession from ruler of Egypt tax when he drained the resources, stopped taxes for a year, which made a lot of copts enter Islam for his justice.
He knit peace with the foreign states , and encouraged non- Muslims to embrace Islam.
When his workmen complained from that , this will pierce the budget of the countries, he said:
' I sware , I like all of people embrace Islam, and we eat from the oil cake of our hands'
When some of his counselors wanted to stop conversion to Islam by ordering circumcision, Omar ordered them renunciation from the circumcision.
Before 'Omar' , the reins of government came by the inheritance,
But in the beginning of his rule, he announced publicely
' Indeed I have excused you from my ruling, and you are free to elect a successor you want'
And he didn't hold his rule until people disclosed their approval
He also returned the territories and properties taken away by force, what led to slope of his annual income from 50.000 dinar to 200 only!.
He forbid his clan to take from the money of the treasure house , even the succession wage!.
Then he directed his attention to the regime, deposing the oppressor rulers, abandoning nonsense fees without a right, including watering fee.
He gave back the non- muslims their temples, and territories, stopped all sins like drinking wine.
One of the tellers said:
That the people while meeting at era of ruler 'Al-Waleed' were asking each other about the mason, manufactories, and gardens
And in ' Suliman' convention they asked each other about slave women
But when 'Omar' was the ruler, men were asking:
What are you going to say to praise God?
How much of Quran' do you know?
How much you read from it?
When do you fast?
Omar also called non-muslim neighbour states to the Islam, then many embraced Islam
He had an intennton to cancel the hereditary system in ruling , bringing back the system of election, but he was poisoned.
Omar ' was an example of fair ruler anywhere, at all times
1- He reduced his expenses, and the expenses of his family
2- He pulled away the gainfully employers, hippocrates.
3- He made knowledgable people his counselors
4- He made peace with the foreign states
5- Gave posts of the states to the pious
6- Evoked a scientific movement , that produced for Islam the four imams , and prevented the spread of wrong beliefs
The 2nd islamic century from 102- 241 after Hijra
" We have explained in various ways in this Qur'an, in order that they may receive admonition"
Rumors and chaos increased, also cursing Companions of Mohammed, and forgery of the history regarding the struggle of Ali' and 'Muawiya'
Theological school of Non-believers in the new states agitated controversies about God's description, necessarianism, and man's free well
This school appeared after the uncovering of the intellectual Greece antiquites.
Some Moslims were charmed by the grecian dialectics, and were joyed by philosophy exactly as were greek youth at days of Plato'
And rapidly Moslim beliefs seemed to be cracked, and demolished down, and the approximate beginning of this was this controversy about creation of the Koran
This creed was spread out by people called 'Mo'tazela' , who abused greek philosophy to change Islamic beliefs, and they got the upperhand over other views at time of caliphate 'Al-Mansor'.
Caliphate 'Al-Mamun' himself was charmed by this mental trend and dispersed his protection on it , and considered it the official faith for the state
He ordered at 832 after Hijra all Moslims should believe that the Koran has been created at a certain time, followed by another command that no judge should work without acceptance to this new belief.
After this decision, other commands ordered acceptance of belief in doctrine of ' free will' , and those refuse are punished by excution.
Then caliphate 'Al-Mamun' died after a year, but caliphates ' Al- Motassem' and 'Al-Wasik' after him carried on same ideas.
It seemed that collapse of doctrine of Islam which depended on Koran was imminent
But 2 factors in this strong crisis made final victory for those adherents to Sunna
1- People allrgiance fot their credos
2- Appearance of the four imam's
The renewers of the second century